• Modernization theory is a theory used to explain the process of modernization within societies.
  • Modernization refers to a model of a progressive transition from a ‘pre-modern’ or ‘traditional‘ to a ‘modern’ society.
  • The theory looks at the internal factors of a country while assuming that, with assistance, “traditional” countries can be brought to development in the same manner more developed countries have.
  • Modernization theory attempts to identify the social variables that contribute to social progress and development of societies, and seeks to explain the process of social evolution.
  • Modernization theory not only stresses the process of change, but also the responses to that change.
  • It also looks at internal dynamics while referring to social and cultural structures and the adaptation of new technologies.
  • Some nations, including China, see modernization as a guide to rapid development. As a nation that developed later than others, some believe that “China’s modernization has to be based on the experiences and lessons of other countries.”
  • Modernization theory maintains that traditional societies will develop as they adopt more modern practices. Proponents of modernization theory claim that modern states are wealthier, more powerful, and that their citizens are freer to enjoy a higher standard of living.
  • Developments, such as new data technology or the need to update traditional methods, it is argued, make modernization necessary or preferable.
  • This view makes critique of modernization difficult, since it implies these developments control the limits of human interaction, and not vice versa.
  • It also implies that it is purely up to human being to control the speed and severity of modernization.
  • Supposedly, instead of being dominated by tradition, societies undergoing the process of modernization typically arrive at governance dictated by abstract principles.
  • Traditional religious beliefs and cultural traits usually become less important as modernization takes hold.
  • Historians link modernization to the processes of urbanization and industrialization, as well as to the spread of education.
  • As Kendall (2007) notes, “Urbanization accompanied modernization and the rapid process of industrialization.”
  • In sociological critical theory, modernization is linked to an overarching process of rationalisation.
  • When modernization increases within a society, the individual becomes that much more important, eventually replacing the family or community as the fundamental unit of society.
  • Political dimensions of modernization involves creation of a modern nation state and the development of key institutions –political parties, bureaucratic structures, legislative bodies and a system of elections based on universal franchise and secret ballot.
  • Cultural modernization involves adherence to nationalistic ideology, belief in equality, freedom and humanism, a rational and scientific outlook.
  • Economic modernization involves industrialization accompanied with monetization of economy, increasing division of labor, use of management techniques and improved technology and the expansion of service sector.
  • Social modernization involves universalistic values, achievement motivation, increasing mobility both social and geographic, increasing literacy, urbanization and the decline of traditional authority.


  • Modernization is a process of socio-cultural transformation.
  • Secular and scientific education act as important means of modernization.
  • It helps in the diffusion of modern values of equality, freedom and humanism.
  • The modern school system can inculcate achievement motivation.
  • These values can form the basis of new relations in the society and growth of rationality can enable the development of administrative system.
  • Diffusion of values of equality, freedom and humanism can lay the foundations of a democratic political system.
  • The spread of modern education in the second half of the 19th century led to the emergence of modern political elite in India who provided leadership in the freedom struggle.
  • The diffusion of scientific and technical knowledge by modern educational institutions can help in the creation of skilled manpower to play the occupational roles demanded by the industrial economy.
  • Other values like individualism and universalistic ethics etc can also be inculcated through education.
  • Thus education can be an important means of modernization. The importance of education can be realized from the fact that all modernizing societies tend to emphasize on universalization of education and the modernized societies have already attained it.







  • The totality of socially transmitted behavior patterns, arts, beliefs, institutions, and all other products of human work and thought is called culture. Culture is learned and shared within social groups and is transmitted by non-genetic means.
  • Some scientists such as Edward Tylor used the term “culture” to refer to a universal human capacity.
  • In the 20th century, “culture” emerged as a central concept in anthropology, encompassing the range of human phenomena that cannot be directly attributed to genetic inheritance.
  • Specifically, the term “culture” in American anthropology had two meanings:

ü  The evolved human capacity to classify and represent experiences with symbols, and to act imaginatively and creatively

ü  The distinct ways that people, who live differently, classified and represented their experiences, and acted creatively.

  • Hoebel describes culture as an integrated system of learned behavior patterns which are characteristic of the members of a society and which are not a result of biological inheritance.
  • Distinctions are currently made between the physical artifacts created by a society, its so-called material culture, and everything else,the intangibles such as language, customs, etc. that are the main referent of the term “culture”.


  • Enculturation is the process by which people learn the requirements of their surrounding culture and acquire values and behaviours appropriate or necessary in that culture.
  • As part of this process, the influences that limit, direct, or shape the individual (whether deliberately or not) include parents, other adults, and peers.
  • Successful, enculturation results in competence in the language, values and rituals of the culture.
  • Enculturation is related to socialization. In some academic fields, socialization refers to the deliberate shaping of the individual.
  • In others, the word may cover both deliberate and informal enculturation.
  • Conrad Phillip Kottak (in Window on Humanity) writes:
  • “Enculturation is the process where the culture that is currently established teaches an individual the accepted norms and values of the culture or society where the individual lives. The individual can become an accepted member and fulfill the needed functions and roles of the group. Most importantly the individual knows and establishes a context of boundaries and accepted behavior that dictates what is acceptable and not acceptable within the framework of that society. It teaches the individual their role within society as well as what is accepted behavior within that society and lifestyle”



  • Acculturation explains the process of cultural change and psychological change that results following meeting between cultures.
  • The effects of acculturation can be seen at multiple levels in both interacting cultures.
  • At the group level, acculturation often results in changes to culture, customs, and social institutions.
  • Noticeable group level effects of acculturation often include changes in food, clothing, and language.
  • At the individual level, differences in the way individuals acculturate have been shown to be associated not just with changes in daily behavior, but with numerous measures of psychological and physical well-being.
  • As enculturation is used to describe the process of first-culture learning, acculturation can be thought of as second-culture learning.
  • The concept of acculturation has been studied scientifically since 1918.
  • As it has been approached at different times from the fields of psychologyanthropology, and sociology, numerous theories and definitions have emerged to describe elements of the acculturative process.
  • Despite definitions and evidence that acculturation entails a two-way process of change, research and theory have primarily focused on the adjustments and adaptations made by minorities such as immigrantsrefugees, and indigenous peoples in response to their contact with the dominant majority.
  • Contemporary research has primarily focused on different strategies of acculturation and how variations in acculturation affect how well individuals adapt to their society.


  • The term cultural lag refers to the notion that culture takes time to catch up with technological innovations, and that social problems and conflicts are caused by this lag.
  • The term cultural lag helps by identifying and explaining social problems and also to predict future problems.
  • As explained by James W. Woodward, when the material conditions change, changes are occasioned in the adaptive culture, but these changes in the adaptive culture do not synchronize exactly with the change in the material culture, this delay is the culture lag.
  • The term was coined by sociologist William F. Ogburn in his 1922 work Social change with respect to culture and original nature.
  • His theory of cultural lag suggests that a period of maladjustment occurs when the non-material culture is struggling to adapt to new material conditions.
  • This resonates with ideas of technological determinism, in that it presupposes that technology has independent effects on society at large.
  • According to Ogburn, cultural lag is a common societal phenomenon due to the tendency of material culture to evolve and change rapidly and voluminously while non-material culture tends to resist change and remain fixed for a far longer period of time.
  • Due to the opposing nature of these two aspects of culture, adaptation of new technology becomes rather difficult.
  • This distinction between material and non-material culture is also a contribution of Ogburn’s 1922 work on social change.
  • Cultural lag creates problems for a society in a multitude of ways.
  • The issue of cultural lag tends to permeate any discussion in which the implementation of some new technology is a topic.
  • For example, the advent of stem cell research has given rise to many new, potentially beneficial medical technologies; however these new technologies have also raised serious ethical questions about the use of stem cells in medicine.
  • Cultural lag is seen as a critical ethical issue because failure to develop broad social consensus on appropriate applications of modern technology may lead to breakdowns in social solidarity and the rise of social conflict.



  • Education encompasses teaching and learning specific skills and also something less tangible but more profound: the imparting of knowledge good judgement and wisdom.
  • Durkheim sees education as the socialization of the younger generation .It is a continuous effort to impose on the child ways of seeing, feeling and acting which he could not have arrived at spontaneously.
  • Education has as one of its fundamental goals the imparting of culture from generation to generation.
  • Culture is a growing whole. There can be no break in the continuity of culture.
  • The cultural elements are passed on through the agents like family, school and other associations.
  • All societies maintain themselves through their culture.
  • Culture here refers to a set of beliefs, skills, art, literature, philosophy, religion, music etc which must be learned. This social heritage must be transmitted through social organizations.
  • Education has this function of cultural transmission in all societies.
  • The curriculum of a school ,its extra-curricular activities and the informal relationships among students and teachers communicate social skills and values.
  • Through various activities school imparts values such as co-operation ,team spirit ,obedience ,discipline etc.
  • Education acts an integrative force in the society by communicating values that unites different sections of society.
  • The school teaches skills to the children which help them later to integrate within the culture of the society.
  • Education in its formal or informal pattern has been performing this role since time immemorial.
  • Education has brought phenomenal changes in every aspect of man’s life.






What is Social Equality?

  • Equality in a society is the social state of affairs whereby all the people in the society have equal rights under the law, including right to vote, physical security, freedom of speech and assembly, and the right to own property and to protect it.
  • Equality also includes concepts of economic equity, that is, equal access to education, health care, social security, public infrastructure and starting and running a business / organization. It also includes equal opportunities for employment, equal access to rent apartments, etc.
  • In order for a society to consider itself a bastion of social equality, it will mean that there are no legally enforced social class / caste boundaries and there is no unfair discrimination motivated by a person’s ethnic identity.
  • It also means that gender, age, sexual orientation, origin, caste or class, income or property, language, religion, convictions, opinions, health or disability do not result in unequal treatment under the law and will not reduce opportunities based on any of those criteria.
  • Perfect social equality is an ideal situation that, for various reasons, does not exist in any society in the world today.
  • Reasons cited for social inequality commonly include economics, immigration/emigration, foreign politics and national politics.

What is an egalitarian society?


  • An egalitarian society is characterized by the belief in equal political, economic, social, and civil rights for all people.


  • Egalitarianism is a trend of thought where emphasis is placed upon the fact that equality contains the idea of equity of quality.


  • All people should  be treated the same, or be regarded as possessing the same quality in some respect despite race, religion, ethnicity, sex, sexual preference, species, political affiliation, economic status, social status, and/or cultural heritage.


  • Egalitarian doctrines tend to maintain that all humans are equal in fundamental worth or social status.


  • It is a social philosophy advocating the removal of economic inequalities among people or the decentralization of power. An egalitarian believes that equality reflects the natural state of humanity.
  • The distribution of education both in terms of quality and quantity is highly uneven in most societies.
  • Inequality in opportunities for education is found not only with reference to individuals and social classes but also in terms of regions and territorial regions such as urban and rural areas.
  • Our educational system is urban biased in the matter of location of facilities; allocation of finance etc
  • Most institutions of higher learning and good schools are concentrated in urban areas. The awareness of their existence and utility is also greater there. The students from the urban areas are favored for admission than those from the rural areas.
  • This prevents the rural person from observing the available urban educational facilities.
  • As referred by Kamat in matter of cost, adjustment and complexes urban people have a decisive edge over their rural counterparts who will have in addition to surmount the problems arising from their migration to cities to pursue education. The rural rich alone seem in these circumstances to come closer to urbanities in the matter of higher education.
  • According to Bauer, urban bias in the educational system is sometimes defended on the ground that in the potential progress of developing societies the city plays a dynamic multiple role as it is the focal point for change and progress and that such bias is not entirely absent even in the western countries.
  • Another group advocates that technical efficiency and economic tenability necessitates educational facilities to be developed as a part of an urban –industrial complex. These arguments counter the role of education as removing the inequalities that it supposes to do.
  • The inevitable consequence of the urban bias in education has been the neglect of education in villages where majority of the population lives. Not only is rural education neglected, it is also suffering from serious ills in its present state.
  • Past experience has shown that at the time of policy planning the greatest stress is laid on universal mass education with special emphasis on the education of women, of scheduled castes and tribes and in rural areas .But at the time of execution and performance the achievements are in urban areas.
  • There is an upward bias in the Government’s method of estimation of the educated manpower requirements for economic growth and Government has been remarkably responsive to political pressures for quantitive expansion of higher education.
  • It is seen that good education is virtually the monopoly of a select stratum of urban society. The institutions are selective as far as socio-economic background of the students is concerned. Students who come from high educational, occupational and income backgrounds, are given preference.
  • While the government has taken up the cause of ameliorating the educational situation among the scheduled tribes and castes the response has been far from satisfactory.
  • It is also seen that despite rapid expansion in their education women are still at a disadvantage compared to men. The availing of benefits of the rapid expansion in higher education by women is chiefly confined to those belonging to the higher social strata and upper caste groups in urban areas.
  • Inequality of educational opportunities does not take place solely at the level of higher education.
  • In fact the initial unequal selection takes place at the school level itself and higher education merely reinforces it.
  • A majority of students in higher education have had English medium education and that too in privately managed schools. The public or private schools contribute to the ranks of higher education.
  • With widespread inequality in opportunities for education resulting from the operation of socio-economic factors education seems to have failed as an effective equalizing factor.
  • However it is not that education has not contributed at all to the process of upward social mobility but the momentum has been slow considering the social fabric of the country.
  • In Indian society traditional culture did not ever appreciate women’s exposure to education.
  • Education was greatly sanskritized, moral and culture focused. These were the prerogatives of the males.
  • Traditional culture stood in the way of women’s education and their employment.
  • Transmission of skills and expertise in traditional India was the fundamental concern of family.
  • Family took up most of the occupational roles of education in traditional Indian society. Caste and family than education were greatly responsible for occupational selection.
  • When the girls were trained in matters related to house management, childcare and other domestic activities, boys were getting into the knowledge about caste-based occupation. Hence a great gender divide occurred in occupation structure.
  • When British came to India they wanted to create an education system that would produce the lower ranking officials required for the colonial administration, policing system and for the purpose of tax collection.
  • Therefore importance was given on English language, culture and general reasoning. Since education demanded the selection of occupation outside family, the family never permitted its women to get into the job market that was dominated by males.
  • Different studies conducted on the limits to women education and employment indicate that a woman’s education is considered as a liability for the family because the higher the education of the girl, higher is the demand for dowry and more economic pressure on the family.
  • Women are considered as parayadhan-the property of others so investment in their education is going to benefit the in-law’s family rather than father’s family. Not much emphasis is laid down on education of girls in India.
  • Women after getting equality to males, after getting into same occupation like husband do not get status equality in the family.
  • Women in India suffer from dualistic responsibilities-one at home and other at office. Negotiating with tension emerging from the both, they suffer from both mental and physical illness.
  • Bina Das advocates that no amount of education is radically transforming the status of women in India.

Education and Inequality

Education of women in India

ü  In Indian society women are largely engaged in unorganized and quasi-organized sectors of activities where they settle down for less wage and other forms of gender-based discriminations.

ü  Even in organized sectors of employment, sexual harassment is very frequent explaining how value system of society works against women education on the one hand and participation at work on the other.

  • Krishna Raj advocates that education has not contributed for the mobility of women and the improvement in their traditional status. Women in India still change their surname after their marriage proudly carrying the identity of their husbands.

ü  There are specific areas of female domination in occupational structure teaching, nursing, counseling, jobs in reception centers, modeling and film industry.

ü  Male domination is greatly found out to be present in heavy industries, army, and agriculture explaining that women’s participation in education has not given way to the feminization of work. Thus education has contributed for restrictive mobility or minimal mobility in case of women in India.

  • Sociologically speaking the factors responsible for the restrictive mobility can be considered as a mismatch between institutional change and attitudinal change.
  • When modern institutions (political and educational) are emphasizing more on women’s exposure to education and employment, attitude of family, kinship, peer group, community and place of work is not committed to the principle of equality. As a result education has contributed very little to the empowerment of women both economically and socially.
  • Tribal’s access to education can be considered as a gift of missionaries to the tribal population of India than being a reflection of the constitutional and legislative attempt of the government.
  • The tribal areas where missionary domination is significant the literacy rate is around 90% or more.
  • This explains how the tribal communities are in actuality apathetic to education. Educational programmes are not designed to cater to the needs of the tribal communities.
  • Nanda and Mahapatra in their study of the discourses of tribal education in India find out the linguistic difference in relation to school and family. This generates a kind of linguistic poverty in case of tribal children because of which they prefer to dropout from school.
  • The special schools for the tribal children such as ashram schools are located in secluded areas where teachers never pay a visit.
  • In many situations no school building and infrastructural facilities are available. Thus students exist only on rolls!
  • School curriculum never pays attention to Tribals’ interest in archery and various kinds of other sports.
  • School’s commitment to teaching and learning makes the tribal children’s school experience unexciting. This increases their dropout rate.
  • Rapid expansion of industries has contributed for the displacement of tribal population.
  • It has broken down the backbone of tribal economy leading to a situation where Tribals are forced to send their children to labor market in search of jobs making school a distant dream for them.
  • Growing poverty, ignorance, self-contention and cultural myopia compel the Tribals to look back at education as no match for their culture. They prefer to maintain a safe distance from it.
  • Tribal education has not got a momentum in India because attitudinal change has not significantly taken place.

Education of Scheduled Tribes in India








  • Social mobility is the movement of individuals or groups of people in social position.
  • It may refer to classesethnic groups, or entire nations, and may measure health status, literacy, or education.
  • More commonly it refers to individuals or families, and their change in income or wealth (economic mobility).
  • It also typically refers to vertical mobility—movement of individuals or groups, up or down from one socio-economic level to another often by changing jobs or marriage.
  • In addition it can also refer to horizontal mobility—movement from one position to another within the same social level.
  • Social mobility can be the change in status between someone (or a group) and their parents/previous family generations (“inter-generational“); or over the change during one’s lifetime (“intra-generational”).
  • It can be “absolute” i.e. total amount of movement of people between classes, usually over one generation (such as when education and economic development raises the socio-economic level of a population); or “relative” which is an estimation of the chance of upward or downward social mobility of a member of one social class in comparison with a member from another class.
  • A higher level of intergenerational mobility is often considered a sign of greater fairness, or equality of opportunity, in a society.
  • Mobility is enabled to a varying extent by economic capitalcultural capital (such as higher education), human capital (such as competence and effort in labour), social capital (such as support from one’s social network), physical capital (such as ownership of tools, or the ‘means of production‘), and symbolic capital (such as the worth of an official title, status classcelebrity, etc.).
  • Absolute mobility measures whether (and by how much) living standards in a society have increased—often measured by what percentage of people have higher incomes than their parents.
  • Relative mobility refers to how likely children are to move from their parents’ place in the income distribution.
  • The more absolute mobility, the better off the population is than their parents, and their children will consequently be better off than them.
  • Relative mobility refers to the fluidity of a society. In other words, if one person moves up in relative terms, another by definition must have moved down.



Sociologists can classify social mobility as:


  • Vertical mobility: the movement of individuals and groups up or down the socioeconomic scale. Those who gain in property, income, status, and position are dubbed “upwardly mobile”, while those who move in the opposite direction are “downwardly mobile”.
  • Horizontal mobility: the movement of individuals and groups in similar socio-economic positions, which may be in different work-situations. This may involve change in occupation or remaining in the same occupation but in a different organization, or may be in the same organization but at a different location.
  • Lateral mobility: geographical movement between neighborhoods, towns or regions. Modern societies exhibit a great deal of geographical mobility. Lateral mobility is often combined with vertical as well as horizontal mobility.




No man should bring children into the world who is unwilling to persevere to the end in their nurture and education. If a man neglects education, he walks lame to the end of his life.The direction in which education starts a man will determine his future in life.”  Plato

  • It has been argued that high rates of education are essential for countries to be able to achieve high levels of economic growth.
  • Empirical analyses tend to support the theoretical prediction that poor countries should grow faster than rich countries because they can adopt cutting edge technologies already tried and tested by rich countries.
  • However, technology transfer requires knowledgeable managers and engineers who are able to operate new machines or production practices borrowed from the leader in order to close the gap through imitation.
  • Therefore, a country’s ability to learn from the leader is a function of its stock of “human capital“.
  • Recent study of the determinants of aggregate economic growth have stressed the importance of fundamental economic institutions and the role of cognitive skills.
  • India has made progress in terms of increasing primary education attendance rate and expanding literacy to approximately two thirds of the population.
  • India’s improved education system is often cited as one of the main contributors to the economic rise of India.
  • Knowledge capital is a concept which asserts that ideas have intrinsic value which can be shared and leveraged within and between organizations. It is an essential component of human capital.
  • Knowledge capital connotes that sharing skills and information is a means of sharing power.
  • Knowledge capital is the ‘know how’ that results from the experience and education of the employees or individuals of an organization or group. Of all the factors of production, knowledge capital creates the longest lasting competitive advantage.
  • Education is important for every individual in a nation. It plays a vital role to change the status of a country. No country could bring a revolution in it unless its people are educated enough to meet the challenges.
  • Education makes a man realize his own self and his goals and also how to achieve those goals.
  • Basically, education is divided into three groups. The Education which teaches the concerns of a society is called Social Education. The Education which develops the personality of a man is called Spiritual Education. The Education that is concerned with developing professionalism is called Vocational Education.
  • So it helps in creating a balanced individual who becomes a responsible and productive citizen of the nation.
  • Education in every sense is one of the fundamental factors of development.
  • No country can achieve sustainable economic developmentwithout substantial investment in human capital.
  • It enriches people’s understanding of themselves and world.
  • It improves the quality of their lives and leads to broad social benefits to individuals and society.
  • Education raises people’s productivity and creativity and promotes entrepreneurship and technological advances.
  • Thus, education plays a very crucial role in securing economic and social progress and improving income distribution.  






What is social change?


Education and Social Change

  • The role of education as an agent or instrument of social change and social development is widely recognized today.
  • Social change may take place when:

ü  humans need change

ü  the existing social system or network of social institutions fails to meet the existing human needs

ü  when new materials suggest better ways of meeting human needs

  • According to Maclver, social change takes place as a response to many types of changes that take place in the social and nonsocial environment.
  • Education can initiate social changes by bringing about a change in outlook and attitude of man.
  • It can bring about a change in the pattern of social relationships and thereby it may cause social changes.
  • Earlier educational institutions and teachers used to show a specific way of life to the students and education was more a means of social control than an instrument of social change.
  • Modern educational institutions do not place much emphasis upon transmitting a way of life to the students.
  • The traditional education was meant for an unchanging static society not marked by any change. But today education aims at imparting knowledge.
  • Education was associated with religion. It has become secular today. It is an independent institution now.
  • Education has been chiefly instrumental in preparing the way for the development of science and technology.
  • Education has brought about phenomenal changes in every aspect of man’s life.
  • Francis J.Brown remarks that education is a process which brings about changes in the behavior of society. It is a process which enables every individual to effectively participate in the activities of society and to make positive contribution to the progress of society.

Constraints on Social Change in India:


1) Cultural inertia: It means adherence to age old customs, traditions and beliefs. Conservative and orthodox people resist change.

2) Mindset: Some people are very skeptical and apprehensive, they are scared of change. Some are biased against people from different castes, religions, regions and communities.

3) Vested interest: The privileged sections of society like religious leaders, politicians, businessmen etc. sometimes resist change because it may mean a loss of power.

4) Cultural Lag: Post globalization, the material culture of India has changed significantly but not the non-material culture. As a result of cultural lag and it’s social consequences a lot of people are scared of change

5) Fear of a new way of life: When people are used to a particular way of life, they find it very hard to adjust to changes in society. For eg. Modernization is often accompanied by urbanization and westernization, so a lot of people are confused whether they should stick to old values or accept new ones.

6) Racial discrimination has prevailed in India since time immemorial.  However, it’s existence hasn’t been widely accepted or understood for that matter. The new social order does not recognize disparities of this sort. The so called racially superior category are going to resist any change that removes them from their position of superiority.

7) Class discrimination– If you are wealthy, you can be of any colour, caste, region or religion-people are going to respect you in India. However, if you are not, your movement up the social ladder will not be easy. The wealthy are likely to find ways and means of preventing it. They will resist social change to maintain their position in society

8) Gender discrimination – Women are accepted to be inferior beings in India. A majority of women are not allowed to do the things that they want to. This means underutilization available human resources. People with a patriarchal mindset are going to resist any change that treats women as equal to men.

9) Discrimination based on caste and religion – Only upper caste Hindus are not discriminated against, based on their caste and religion. Rest all are, in some way or the other.  People from the Scheduled Castes and Tribes, Other Backward Castes (OBC) and people from minority communities/religions are hated not only because they were born into these castes but also because they enjoy certain benefits which people from the General category are deprived of. However, reservation has helped in their upliftment in a big way. The fact remains that these people are not even treated like human beings in most regions of India. How can there be progress if people are biased against each other and can’t work together? The upper caste people will resist any change that will bring them down from their superior positions.

10) Regional discrimination- people from the different states of India are biased against each other. Prejudice of this sort prevents people from collaborating. People who cannot give up their age old beliefs resist change.







  •  Social health means the same as social order, and is guaranteed when nearly everyone accepts the general moral values of their society. Hence structural functionalists believe the aim of key institutions, such as education, is to socialize children and teenagers.
  • Socialization is the process by which the new generation learns the knowledge, attitudes and values that they will need as productive citizens.
  • Although this aim is stated in the formal curriculum,it is mainly achieved through the hidden curriculum,a subtler, but nonetheless powerful, indoctrination of the norms and values of the wider society.
  • Students learn these values because their behavior at school is regulated until they gradually internalize and accept them.



ü  The family is the most important agent of socialization because it is the center of the child’s life, as infants are totally dependent on others.

ü  Not all socialization is intentional, it depends on the surroundings.

ü  The most profound affect is gender socialization; however the family also shoulders the task of teaching children cultural values and attitudes about themselves and others.

ü  Children learn continuously from the environment that adults create.

ü  Children also become aware of class at a very early age and assign different values to each class accordingly.


ü  Agents of socialization differ in effects across religious traditions.

ü  Some believe religion is like an ethnic or cultural category, making it less likely for the individuals to break from religious affiliations and be more socialized in this setting.

ü  Parental religious participation is the most influential part of religious socialization—more so than religious peers or religious beliefs.


ü  A peer group is a social group whose members have interests, social positions and age in common.

ü  This is where children can escape supervision and learn to form relationships on their own.

ü  The influence of the peer group typically peaks during adolescence however peer groups generally only affect short term interests unlike the family which has long term influence.


ü  Socialization within an economic system is the process of learning the consequences of economic decisions.

ü  Socialization impacts decisions regarding “acceptable alternatives for consumption,” “social values of consumption alternatives,” the “establishment of dominant values,” and “the nature of involvement in consumption”.


ü  Children are pressured from both parents and peers to conform and obey certain laws or norms of the group/community.

ü  Parents’ attitudes toward legal systems influence children’s views as to what is legally acceptable.

ü   For example, children whose parents are continually in jail are more accepting of incarceration.


ü  People learn to socialize differently depending on the specific language and culture in which they live.

ü  A specific example of this is code switching. This is where immigrant children learn to behave in accordance with the languages used in their lives: separate languages at home and in peer groups (mainly in educational settings).

ü  Depending on the language and situation at any given time, people will socialize differently.


ü  The mass media are the means for delivering impersonal communications directed to a vast audience.

ü  The term media comes from Latin meaning, “middle,” suggesting that the media’s function is to connect people.

ü  Since mass media has enormous effects on our attitudes and behavior, notably in regards to aggression, it is an important contributor to the socialization process.

ü  According to Denis McQuail “the media can teach norms and values by way of symbolic reward and punishment for different kinds of behavior as represented in the media. An alternative view is that it is a learning process whereby we all learn how to behave in certain situations and the expectations which go with a given role or status in society.” (McQuail 2005: 494)







Every society has its own changing socio – cultural needs and requires an education to meet these needs. Today’s needs are conservation of resources, environmental protection, global citizenship etc. Therefore education caters towards the meeting of these different needs. Since the needs of the society change education also changes. Education helps in understanding:

1. Work of school and teachers and its relation to society, social progress and development

2. Effect of social elements on the working of school and society

3. Effect of social elements on the life of individuals

4. Construction of curriculum in relation to the cultural and economic needs of the society

5. Democratic ideologies present in different countries

6. Need for understanding and promoting international culture

7. Development of society through the formulation of various rules and regulations and understanding of culture and traditions

8. Need for promotion of social adjustment

9. The effect of social groups, their interrelation and dynamics on Individuals


Acquisition of knowledge and development of the personality of an individual is no longer presumed to be the main function of education. From the sociological point of view, education has the following functions:

1. Assimilation and transmission of culture/traditions:

This needs to be done consciously and selectively because traditions need to be selected for transmission as well as omission depending on their value and desirability in today’s democratic set-up. Education should help in

• Acquisition/clarification of personal values

• Self-realization/self-reflection: awareness of one’s abilities and goals

• Self-esteem/self-efficacy

• Thinking creatively

• Cultural appreciation: art, music, humanities

• Developing a sense of well-being: mental and physical health

• Acquisition/clarification of values related to the physical environment

• Respect: giving and receiving recognition as human beings

• Capacity/ability to live a fulfilling life

2. Development of new social patterns: Today the world is changing very fast due to development of technology and communication. So along with preservation of traditional values, new values, social patterns need to be developed where:

• Citizens are rooted in their own cultures and yet are open to other cultures

• Global outlook is fostered

• Knowledge is advanced in such a way that economic development goes hand in hand with responsible management of the physical resources and citizens who understand their social responsibilities are produced

• Citizens who can evaluate information and predict future outcomes are developed – in short who can take part in decision-making

• Who have the capacity/ability to seek out alternative solutions and evaluate them

3. Activation of constructive and creative forces:

Education should help to build up a qualified and creative workforce that can adapt to new technologies and take part in the ‘intelligence revolution’ that is the driving force of our economies.

  • It should ensure capacity/ability to earn a living: career education
  • Develop mental and physical skills: motor, thinking, communication, social, aesthetic
  • Produce citizens who can adapt, adjust according to social environment
  • Produce citizens who can contribute towards the progress of society
  • Produce citizens who will live democratically
  • Create individuals who will make proper use of leisure time
  • Train individuals to adapt to change or prepare for change, better still initiate change in the society
  • Develop individuals who respect others, try to understand them and promote the values of peace
  • Promote knowledge of moral practices and ethical standards acceptable by society/culture
  • Develop capacity/ability to recognize and evaluate different points of view
  • Develop understanding of human relations and motivations


THERE IS NOTHING ORIGINAL HERE. Data has been collected from various books and the internet for the benefit of students doing-ECCE/B.Ed/M.Ed. Since I have forgotten from where I gathered all the data while making these notes, the list of references after most posts, isn't complete. I take no responsibility for the authenticity of the data presented here.